Thursday, February 15, 2024

CWP, 15 February MMXXIV Anno Domini

 Greetings Sheepdogs, 
     "History is won by those who show up."  
-- John F. Kennedy
Table of Sections:  
*****     *****     ***** Prevention *****     *****     *****
Things you can do to avoid the lethal force incident.  
Table of contents:  
----- Mindset -----
Figuring out the correct way to think.  
     You won't have time to load your pistol.  You certainly won't have time to get your 
pistol if it is not on your body.  To think otherwise is delusional.  
     ‟We don’t decide what is necessary to survive a 
lethal force encounter initiated by someone else.  
That person decides what’s necessary for us to survive.”  
– William Aprill
"Trendy or Noteworthy? (Part I)" by Dave Spaulding
Hat tip to Greg Ellifritz.  
     Remember, fighting is final.  If you engage in combat, you run the risk of 
being hurt or killed.  It’s not a video game.  There is no way to engage in nice 
fighting.  There is no room for “politically correct” in this arena.  I fear that 
some American cops and armed citizens have reached a time when force is 
preferably “minimal” instead of “objectively reasonable.”  On the other end 
of the spectrum, some want to use military-style, battle zone tactics in domestic 
conflict.  The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled in several landmark cases – and 
it’s written in many state statutes -- that force must be reasonable, but how 
many cases do you know of in which police officers used reasonable force only 
to get thrown under the bus?  
"Trendy or Noteworthy? (Part II)" by Dave Spaulding
     "Any technique that will be used to save your life must be applied without 
a great deal of concentration and effort.  In a situation that will last but a few 
seconds, there isn't time to observe, orient, decide and act.  Many believe you 
must cycle through the entire loop, which isn't true."  
     "This training program is well-chronicled and it’s clear that they didn’t 
receive the amount of training time that is currently committed to today’s 
police cadets in the basic academy.  The difference was that great pains 
were taken to eliminate anything that wasn’t needed and to keep what was 
taught straight-forward and simple.  Again, simple is easy to teach, practice, 
master and maintain with minimal time and effort. Sometimes, less is more."  
     "It’s not inhumane, it’s merely force, and the use of force will always 
be ugly, destructive, brutal and bloody.  The best you can do is to make 
sure you are using it appropriately."  
     "It's not daily increase but daily decrease - hack away at the inessentials!" 
-- Bruce Lee
     ‟Fear is an instinct.  Courage is a choice.”  
-- Rear Admiral Joseph Kernan, USN
     If you haven't decided to act.  You won't.  
     ‷If you look at someone bigger, faster, and stronger and immediately think, 
‶I'm at a disadvantage″,  
I have news for you:  you are.  
But that's only because you just put yourself there for no reason.  
     The truth is that anyone can do debilitating violence to anyone else.  
Your size, your speed, your strength, your gender -- 
all the factors that untrained people think make the difference when it comes to violence -- 
all matter far less than your mindset and your intent.‴  
-- Tim Larkin
     "Jeff Cooper's Color Code exists to help you get your head 
around the need to kill someone in the immediate future."  
-- John Hearne
***** Situational Awareness ***** 
How to avoid being taken by surprise.  
     “You need to have the capacity for danger.  
You need to be ‘dangerous’.  Yet, you need to 
learn how to not use it except when necessary.  
And, that is not the same thing as being harmless.  
     There's nothing virtuous about harmlessness.  
Harmless just means you’re ineffectual and useless.”  
-- Jordan Peterson 
----- Safety -----  
How to prevent the bad thing from happening in the first place.  
How to avoid shooting yourself, friendlies, and innocent bystanders.  
Jeff Cooper′s Rules of Gun Safety  
     You should also be aware of anyone who may move in front of your target.  
Untrained persons do stupid things when they panic in high stress situations.  
So, as the trained person, it is your responsibility to avoid shooting the 
innocent bystanders.  
"Home Defense Considerations: Answering the Door" by Salvatore
Hat tip to Greg Ellifritz.  
     "Speak to the stranger through the door, but don’t open it."  
     "Some may argue that simply not answering the stranger on your doorstep is 
the best policy.  I disagree.  Many home invasions begin as a simple burglary in 
which a single criminal, or multiple criminals, invade a home under the 
presumption that nobody is home.  By letting it be known that the house is 
indeed occupied you immediately reduce the likelihood of the breach."  
     "It's easier to stay out of trouble than to get out of trouble."  
-- Claude Werner
"The PROBLEM with a Thumb Safety on a Pistol" by Warrior Poet Society
     Pistols don't need active safeties (thumb safeties) because the holster is the safety.  
Long guns don't generally have holsters, so they need active (manual safeties).  
     Passive safeties (automatically defeated with a proper grip and trigger press) 
don't require any additional intentional actions.  So, they are better, for pistols.  
"9 Lifesaving Self Defense Tips From Pat McNamara"
Hat tip to Greg Ellifritz.  
     "As the driver . . . , your primary responsibility is to drive.  If you are on 
your phone, you are not driving.  This also means it’s your job to ensure that 
the vehicle is clean inside and out and functioning well.  Make sure the 
engine passes inspection, test all of the doors and locks, and ask for assistance 
if you’re unfamiliar with an item or its use.  You must account for all 
emergency equipment and verify that it functions.  And you must drive to save 
your life or the lives of your passengers if necessary."  
"Church Shooting!" by John Farnam
     “When the highest aim of a captain is to keep his ship and crew safe, 
he would never leave port.  But of course, that’s not what ships are for.”  
-- Thomas Aquinas
     "Yet, let us not be foolishly naïve about real (and increasing) personal risks 
that attach to all political, as well as religious, activities in 2024."  
     Let us never confuse "safety" with "no risk".  As Farnam says, 
personal risk attaches to all religious activities.  
     Do you understand why it is so important to stay away from New York et al?  
     Do you understand why the "jounalist" cannot understand what the politician is saying?  
     Please be safe.  
     Do not stand, sit, climb, or lean on fences.  
     If you fall, the animals could eat you and 
that might make them sick.  
     Thank you.  
-- sign in San Diego Zoo "Concealed Carry Crime Stats 2024"
"Shocked?" by John Farnam
     "The prudent take reasonable precautions, 
among which is permanent departure from 
NY, CA, IL, et al, while still possible!"  
John Farnam's rules to keep you out of trouble:  
Don’t go to stupid places.  
Don’t associate with stupid people.  
Don’t do stupid things.  
Have a “normal” appearance.  
Be in bed by 10:00pm (your own bed).  
Don’t fail the attitude test.  
----- Training -----
Figuring out the correct tasks to practice.
"Knowledge defeats fear.
Preparation defeats failure.
Discipline defeats panic"
-- Michael Lang
"Unprepared!" by John Farnam
     "The homeowner in this case (obviously) had no lethal-force training, 
had no idea of what he was doing, and is now experiencing dire consequences!"  
     "Never unlock and open your door for people of whose motives you are suspicious."  
     "Had the exact-same shot, at the exact-same moment, been “intentional,” 
this homeowner would probably have had a strong case for legitimate self-defense, 
and thus may not have even been charged.  However, the contention of “self-defense” 
is only available to you in an intentional shooting.  In an accidental shooting, 
the argument for “self-defense” will not be allowed, as this homeowner is belatedly 
     You need training because:  
You don't know what you don't know.  
Much of what you know is false.  
It's good to the have the answers before the criminal tests you.  
-- Claude Werner (paraphrased)
"The Martial Marksman Physical Fitness Hierarchy" by Matt
Hat tip to Greg Ellifritz.  
     "A very comprehensive fitness article.  I really think all of you would be 
better served by a regular gym routine than a sub-second draw."  
-- Greg Ellifritz
     "You brought a gun to the fight.  That doesn’t mean it’s YOUR gun.  
The gun belongs to whomever can keep it.  Think about that before intervening 
in other folks’ problems.  When is the last time you practiced your in-hand weapon 
retention skills?"  
-- Greg Ellifritz
"10 Advanced Handgun-Training Terms You Should Know
You'll hear these in the classroom and on the range, so it's good to know them."  
by W.H. "Chip" Gross
     "Anyone new to the game should probably understand 
these terms before taking their first shooting class."  
-- Greg Ellifritz
     “The secret of success is this. 
Train like it means everything when it means nothing – 
so you can fight like it means nothing when it means everything.” 
-- Lofty Wiseman
"Where Did These Words Hurt You?" by Erick Gelhaus
Hat tip to Greg Ellifritz.  
     My 2 cents -- 
“Slow is smooth. Smooth is efficient. Efficient is fast.”
Slow is smooth (because you can control what you're doing).  
Smooth is efficient (because controlling what you are doing removes inefficiencies).  
Efficient is fast (because there is no wasted motion).  
Fast is good (because whoever HITS first usually wins).  
[Which is not the same as who SHOOTS first.]  
     “You are no more armed because you are wearing a pistol 
than you are a musician because you own a guitar.” 
from Principles of Personal Defense by Col. Jeff Cooper, USMC, (1920 – 2006 A.D.)
"More Red Dot Tips" by SLG
     If you can’t hold 6″ at 25 yards, you are not serious about shooting, 
even at a fairly basic level.  Most professional gun-toters can’t do this.  
It doesn’t mean you can’t defend yourself, it just means that you need 
to work on your basic marksmanship.  A medium level of skill would 
be more in the sub 5″ range.  If you are looking to master the gun, 
somewhere around 2″ is your goal.  All of the above assumes 5 shot 
groups at 25 yards, shooting offhand.  
     "Safe gun handling and knowing how to operate the gun competently is one thing.  
How to fight with the gun is a whole other plane of knowledge."  
-- Tiger McKee
"Hostage Resolution" by Scott Reitz
Hat tip to Greg Ellifritz.  
     "Square-range “combat” qualification skills simply will not suffice."  
     "There are fears about striking the very person you are attempting 
to rescue, doubts about being able to deliver a precision shot when not 
“warmed up,” the question of sudden, erratic movements of either the 
suspect or victim, and the total unpredictability of the situation itself."  
     "Not everything you confront can be solved by direct gunfire, 
when absolute unwavering precision and mental composure in concert 
with experience are called for.  It is equally important to know when 
not to shoot as it is when to shoot."  
     "Those motivated by a desire to improve their 
gunfighting skills as opposed to a quest for trophies, 
must be willing to bleed ego on the match results 
to avoid shedding blood in combat."  
-- Andy Stanford
     "So check for a correct firing grip, body weight behind the handgun and 
check that trigger finger placement!"  
     "They won’t practice what they’re not good at because it isn’t fun — it’s not 
supposed to be fun, it’s supposed to make us more competent, isn’t that the point 
of all practicing to begin with?"  
     "Many fights are won by the last round fired. If the last round is your first round, 
it’ll make it a much happier day — even if fired left handed!"  
     "It’s a remarkably simple concept and you say to yourself 
“Yeah, I get it, it’s simple. Anyone can do it!” 
You are correct in its simplicity and that anyone, 
given the right amount of training and experience, 
can do it.  However, it cannot be accomplished without 
converting your intellectual familiarity to physical skill.  
You may understand it as a simple concept, 
but building the skill to pull it off physically, comfortably, 
and repeatably is a completely different story.  
Simple yes, but not easy."  
"Dan Bongino shares a “fight to your gun” video" by Mike Ox
     I tried to find the original video on, but I don't know how to 
search Rumble very well.  
     "In your training, work primarily on the two most important fundaments 
of marksmanship:  sight alignment and trigger control.  All of the other 
fundaments are support mechanisms for these two basics."  
-- Pat McNamara
"FRONTLINE DEBRIEFS: If My Department Won’t Pay …"
by Scott Reitz
Hat tip to Greg Ellifritz.  
     " “If the department won’t pay for it, then I’m not doing or getting it!” 
     I’m going to tell you one thing your department/city will most definitely 
pay for . . . your autopsy."  
     [Train on your own time and your own dime.  You'll never regret it. -- Jon Low]  
"Hard Lessons: Fighting and the Consequences Thereof"
by Integrated Skills Group
Hat tip to Greg Ellifritz.  
"The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly – December 2023" by Claude Werner
     “Have a gun, be able to access the gun, be able to make the gun go Bang!, 
be willing to use the gun.”
     The The Danish National Symphony Orchestra performing the theme from 
"The Good, the Bad and the Ugly" is awesome.  Claude always had good taste.  
     Never leave your pistol in your car.  
     “Your car is not a holster.” -- Pat Rogers
"How to Disappear Completely Without a Trace and Never Be Found Again"
by Ex CIA agent Jason Hanson
     Because you might not want to surrender to police.  The beatings and forced sodomy 
in jail may not be something to want to experience.  Remember Jeffery Epstein.  He 
couldn't survive; and he was rich, powerful, and connected.  The prison guards are not 
going to protect you.  The prison guards killed Epstein.  That's why they (including the 
Warden) were all transferred to other facilities.  That's how they "fire" civil servants.  
They can't fire them, so they transfer them to bumfuck Egypt.  The civil servant refuses 
to go, so he resigns to avoid being fired for not going.  But if you're doing a job for the 
Clintons, they will find you another job.  
     What makes you think you could survive?  Do you have what it takes to survive in 
     We all die.  Better to die free.  
--- Start of Classes ---
"Upcoming 2024 Open Enrollment Classes" by Greg Ellifritz
Harris Combative Strategies -- Don't complain.  Train.  
Out Post Armory
2024 Schedule (including prelim)           
Immediate Action Combatives -Cecil Burch – 23-25Feb2024 (23Feb is 6pm start time)
Grappling in a weapons based environment.
Sentinel Concepts – Steve Fisher – 2 Day Carbine – 9-10Mar2024
Symtac Consulting – Rob and Matt Haught- Shotgun Skills-23-24March 2024 (Sold Out email Symtac to get on waiting list)
FPF Training – John Murphy- Street Encounter Skills- 13-14Apr2024
Presscheck Consulting – Chuck Pressburg – 18-21Apr2024
No Fail Pistol 18-19Apr2024
No Fail Rifle  20-21Apr2024
Dr. James Williams – Shooting with Xray Vision Instructor – 4-5May2024
Apache Training Solutions – Full Spectrum Defensive Pistol - 17-19May2024
Lone Star Medics – Caleb Causey – TacMed EDC – 29Jun2024
Sentinel Concepts – Steve Fisher – 2 day Handgun  – 28-29Sept2024
RangeMaster – Tom Givens – Master Instructor Development – 4-6Oct2024
Agile Training and Consulting – Chuck Haggard – 19-20Oct2024 (waiting on date confirm)
19Oct Pocket Rockets
20Oct OC Instructor
Tim Herron Shooting – Practical Performance – 26-27Oct2024
Citizens Defense Research – Melody Lauer and Chris Cypert – 8-11Nov2024
8-9Oct The Armed Parent/Guardian
10-11Oct Contextual Handgun: Public Encounters
John Holschen – Applied Defensive Handgun Skills – 16-17Nov2024
Cougar Mountain Solutions – Erick Gelhaus – 6-8 Dec 2024
Red Dot Instructor Course
--- End of Classes ---
"Verbal Commands and Simulator Situations" Firearms Legal Protection
     Ya, it's an advertisement.  But there is good information too.  Like Bruce Lee said, 
take it from where ever you can find it.  
     ‟Training is NOT an event, but a process. 
Training is the preparation FOR practice.”  
-- Claude Werner
----- Practice -----
How to get proficient at that task.  
     ‟Be careful what you practice.  
Because you will do in combat 
whatever you have practiced, 
no matter how ridiculous.”  
-- ‶Shooting in Self-Defense″ by Sara Ahrens 
     “Willingness is a state of mind.  Readiness is a statement of fact!”  
-- Lt. Gen. David M Shoup, USMC Commandant, 1960-1963
     "People rust faster than equipment."  
-- John Hearne
     “Train, Practice, Compete 
are the key elements in the development of humans.”  
-- John M. Buol, Jr.
     ‶Practice is the small deposits you make over time, 
so that in an emergency, you can make that big withdrawal.″  
-- Chesley Burnett Sullenberger, III
Why practice?  
    “To each there comes in their lifetime a special moment 
when they are figuratively tapped on the shoulder and 
offered the chance to do a very special thing, unique 
to them and fitted to their talents.  What a tragedy if 
that moment finds them unprepared or unqualified for that 
which could have been their finest hour.”  
-- Winston Churchill
*****     *****     ***** Intervention *****     *****     *****
Suggestions on how to deal with the incident that you failed to avoid.  
     Awareness, Avoidance, De-Escalation, Escape 
Table of contents:  
----- Strategy -----
Deciding on the end state and how to achieve it, 
which tactics to use, which includes walking away.  
     “How do you win a gunfight?  
Don't be there.”  
-- John Farnam
"Responses to Mass Shooting Attacks" 
An Interview with Ed Monk
     I took Ed's classes when he gave them at The Glock Store, here in Nashville, TN.  
If you missed the classes, here is a chance to get a taste.  
     He and I are Graduates of the Front Sight 4-day Defensive Handgun course.  
Poor Front Sight.  It was great in its heyday.  Now just a memory.  
     "You win gunfights by not getting shot."  
-- John Holschen
----- Tactics ----- 
Maneuver and fire in support of your strategy.  
     "Real fights are short."
-- Bruce Lee
     “Fortuitous outcomes reinforce poor tactics.”  
-- Chuck Haggard
     "The shorter the fight, the less hurt you get."
-- John Holschen
----- Techniques -----
Ways to execute a given task in support of your tactics, 
especially when disabled or under stress.  
     "Use only that which works, 
and take it from any place you can find it."
-- Bruce Lee 
     “Not moving the gun is the critical part of the process because aiming 
doesn’t mean anything if we move the gun before the bullet leaves the barrel!”  
-- Rob Leatham
"Odd Position Shooting" by Greg Ellifritz
     "In other words, if I was faced off with my evil twin with identical gun and holster, 
if his gun had a loaded chamber he would have gotten two or three shots into me 
before I had racked the slide and gotten my first round going in his direction.  
Fractions of a second mean a lot."  
     Racking the slide to load a cartridge into the chamber requires two hands.  You 
won't have two hands.  
     "I can rack with one hand."  
     A one-handed rack requires something of the appropriate shape, rigidity, and 
mass to rack against.  You won't have such a thing.  Muphy's Law guarantees it.  
Murphy's Law:  Anything that can go wrong will go wrong, at the worst possible time.  
     Murphy's Law is a law of nature.  It doesn't matter whether or not you believe 
in Murphy's Law.  Like gravity, Murphy's Law doesn't care what you believe.  
The only way to defeat Murphy's Law is to eliminate anything that can go wrong.  
So always carry with a round in the chamber.  You won't have time to load.  
And you certainly won't have time to get your pistol if it is not on your body.  
"Around the Water Cooler, Rants — Reholstering" by Rich Grassi
     I was in a class with Tiffany Johnson, Aqil Qadir, et al at the Citizens Safety 
Academy, and we had a rousing discussion about "holstering", as opposed to 
"reholstering".  They convinced me that "to holster" your pistol means what you 
think it means.  So the term "reholster" is incorrect word usage.  
" “Cheating” The Draw With The Pre-Aim" by Mike Ox
     Excerpt from an email from a friend -- 
     ". . .  I finally ordered one of the bore sights that is sized and shaped to feed into 
the chamber and checked it, and it went to where I naturally point the weapon but 
way off from where I'd had to adjust the sights, so I'm obviously doing something 
when I'm at the range to push the firearm slightly left for which I could roughly 
compensate for by adjusting the sights (at least I was consistent!).  The bore sight 
also has a dry fire function (i.e., a momentary on when struck by the firing pin), 
so I will be working with that so I can get this worked out.  I wondered if it might 
be the thin grips, but I've had other pistols with thin grips (a couple 1911s and the 
infamous Remington R51) and not had this issue before, so I'm not sure what I'm 
doing differently with this handgun.  Any thoughts would be appreciated.  
Thank you.  
Hi Mark,
     Don't move the sights until you are able to shoot 5 rounds through one ragged 
hole at 3 yards (5 yards if you're really salty).  Until you can shoot a tight group, 
you're not consistent enough for the sight adjustments to have any effect.  Moving 
the sights would just be chasing your tail.  
     To get the tight group, you must master the surprise trigger break.  The surprise 
break defeats all of your autonomic nervous system responses (push, jerk, flinch, 
freeze, etc.) to the report and recoil.  Scattering your shots to the left (or sometimes 
low left) for a right handed shooter is you pushing against the anticipated recoil.  
It is a natural learned reaction to the recoil.  The way to defeat this autonomic 
nervous system response is to not let your brain know exactly when the round will 
be fired.  That way, the bullet will be out of the muzzle before your body reacts to 
the recoil and report.  That is the surprise break.  
     There are many different techniques for achieving a surprise break.  The simplest 
that I have found is as follows:  
     Grip tight.  Maintain that grip pressure.  (A common mistake is to increase grip 
pressure while pressing the trigger.  That would cause the pistol to move off the target.  
Mike Seeklander says, grip first, then press the trigger.)  
     Touch the trigger.  Because you need to find out where the trigger is.  It might not 
be where you think it is, because in a high stress situation, you might not get a 
perfect grip.  
     Take the slack out of the trigger.  (Yanking the trigger through the slack drastically 
reduces accuracy.)  Now when you release the shot, the movement of the pistol due to 
the trigger movement will be minimized.  
     Apply 1 pound of pressure to the trigger.  Apply 2 pounds of pressure.  
Apply 3 pounds of pressure.  Apply 4 pounds of pressure.  Apply 5 pounds of pressure.  
The pistol will fire long before you get to 5 pounds.  And because you did not intend 
to fire the shot, you will get a surprise break.  And the point of impact will be correct.  
     Do this 5 times.  If you get all 5 bullets though one ragged hole, then it makes sense 
to move the sights.  
     This may seem like a long complex process.  But with practice, it will compress 
in time and become very fast.  Eventually, you won't remember that you are doing 
this shot process.  It will just happen automagically.  
     "It's not daily increase but daily decrease - hack away at the inessentials!" 
-- Bruce Lee
*****     *****     ***** Postvention *****     *****     *****
Suggestions on how to treat your wounds.  
Suggestions on how to avoid prosecution, conviction, and prison time.  
Suggestions on how to avoid the civil law suit and judgment.  
Table of contents:  
----- Aftermath ----- 
You must be alive to have these problems:  criminal and civil liability.  
     “The true soldier fights not because he hates what is in front of him, 
but because he loves what is behind him.”
― G.K. Chesterton
"Alan Colie Talks And Exposes USCCA" by Heavy Duty Country
"More USCCA/Alan Colie Controversy!" by Andrew Branca
"Did Alan Colie's Email Exonerate USCCA?" by Attorneys On Retainer
USCCA breaks silence on "youtube prankster shooting"
by Legally Armed America
     Actually, this is important.  It's an exercise in psychological warfare, information 
warfare, legal warfare, propaganda, etc.  Do you understand what's going on under 
the hood?  Can you peg the intelligence levels of all of the participants?  Can you 
peg the political affiliation of all of the participants?  Can you predict their future 
actions?  If you call yourself an Intel Analyst, you should be able to.  Have fun.  
     In the right hand column, click on the link labeled "Self Defense Insurance".  
Or, the direct link is, 
Read this before you buy insurance.  You need to make an informed decision.  
The various policies are drastically different.  
     "You need to read the fine print." -- Massad Ayoob  
"Grandfather suing Sunglass Hut, Macy's following arrest" by FOX 26 Houston
     If you're going to get raped (sodomized) and beaten in jail, why would you 
submit to arrest in the first place?  
     "Because it will just make things worse."  
     Will it?  Your underlying assumption is that you will eventually get caught.  
Will you?  50% never get arrested for murder.  And murder is the highest priority 
of the law enforcement officers.  Lesser crimes have a higher probability of no 
arrest, ever.  The truth is, most reported crimes are never closed.  
     This guy was lucky.  A lot of guys get killed in jail.  Would you risk submitting 
to arrest, knowing that you might be killed in jail.  
     You think the Sheriff Deputies are going to protect you in jail?  What planet 
are you living on?  
     The Red Cross won't accept you blood donation if you've been in jail?  
Do you understand why?  
     I know of a case in which the cops castrated the suspect in jail.  The cops were 
never prosecuted.  A judge threw out the civil law suit.  The suspect had been 
arrested for rape, but another judge dismissed with prejudice because the 
responding-officer / arresting-officer was the boyfriend of the woman being "raped".  
Wouldn't it have been better to shoot the arresting officer before the officer made 
the arrest?  How much are your testicles worth?  As they taught us in the 
Marine Corps, once you surrender, it's torture and death.  So, never surrender.  
     In the right hand column of this web page, click on "Never Talk To The Police"
or use the direct address 
     “Your understanding and consent are not required 
for someone to take your life, kill your loved ones, 
and destroy all you hold dear.” 
-- William Aprill 
----- Medical -----
     "If you prepare for the emergency,
the emergency ceases to exist!"
-- Sherman House

----- Survival -----
     "If you stay fit, you do not have to get fit. 
If you stay trained, you do not have to get trained. 
If you stay prepared, you do not have to get prepared."
-- Robert Margulies
*****     *****     ***** Education *****     *****     *****
Table of contents:  
     "You will never get smarter or broaden your horizons 
if you're unwilling to learn from others and read."
-- Becca Martin
The Tactical Professor
"Weekend Knowledge Dump" by Greg Ellifritz
Rangemaster newsletter, February 2024
     A very interesting Instructor Enrichment class offered by Apache Solutions in 
North Carolina.  
"Civilian Response to Active Shooter Events Instructor" 4.00 hour course
Hat tip to Greg Ellifritz.  
Available Online – Free!  
In conjunction with Advanced Law Enforcement Rapid Response Training (ALERRT)
Texas A&M Engineering Extension Service
Texas A&M University System
"DAY 2:  
     Running with a gas mask on is difficult.  When I was in Rag Bag, we ran the obstacle 
course on K-Bay with gas masks on (dummy filters).  Everyone in the battalion was 
gasping for air and rolling around on the ground trying to breathe.  So, I suspect the gas 
masks don't have filters in them.  Or, the modern gas masks don't restrict air passage 
the way the ones in 1981 A.D. did.  
     The rest of the episodes are at 
     "Cogito, ergo armatum sum." (I think, therefore armed am I.)
-- John Farnam
----- Legal -----
     "Our Constitution was made only for a moral and religious people. 
It is wholly inadequate for the governance of any other.
-- John Adams, October 11, 1798
     This is so nice to see.  
"Sheriff says man wrongly arrested was fired from job" by FOX Carolina News
by The Four Boxes Diner
     Dicta are not binding.  The right of the people to bear arms.  The people.  Not just 
certain privileged persons.  
"Law of Self Defense" by Andrew Branca (free book, just pay shipping so you 
don't have to go to Colorado to pick it up.)  
"Concealed Carry Permit Holders Across the United States: 2023"
"The 5 Elements of Self Defense" by Andrew Branca (free of charge) 
"What if You Hit the HOSTAGE? | Real Lawyer Answers!" by Andrew Branca
     Video of hostage rescue shot by police.  Success!  
     Legal theory of "transferred intent".  
     “Your character is what you do when no one is looking.”  
-- Thomas Jefferson
     You think this prosecutor is an aberration?  What planet are you living on?  
"Fired prosecutor defends charging innocent bystander" by ABC15 Arizona
     Remember, Glenn R. Funk prosecuted Nashville Police Officer Andrew Delke 
for murder for shooting an armed criminal who had pointed his pistol at Delke.  
(Delke only took the plea deal because every mock jury pulled from Davidson 
County convicted Delke.  Because that's what flaming liberals do.)  
And Funk refused to prosecute any of the Black Lives Matter rioters and looters 
who set fire to the Nashville Court House and caused other damage.  
     These Soros prosecutors are everywhere.  
     As pointed out by a 19th-century congressional leader, 
“One of the greatest delusions in the world is the hope 
that the evils in this world are to be cured by legislation.”  
-- Stephen P. Wenger
"A Cop's Lies Put Her in Jail for 2 years—Now She's Asking the Supreme Court for Justice"
by Institute for Justice
     If the U.S. Appellate Courts protect criminal LEOs with blanket qualified immunity, 
maybe the solution is to put the criminal LEO down and walk away.  
     It may be worth the risk to avoid enduring a 23 hour cell in federal prison for years.  
(That will destroy your mental health in short order.)  Everyone dies.  But taking out 
criminal LEOs is rare heroism.  And a great community service.  In the end, we all 
answer to God.  
     I have had the misfortune of being forced to work with criminal LEOs.  It is essential 
to distance yourself from them; physically and organizationally.  Because they attract 
other criminals that you will have to deal with.  Birds of a feather flock together.  Just 
as homosexuals, they recognize each other and choose to associate with like minded 
persons.  They will recognize that you are honest and so will eventually attempt to kill 
you because they cannot tolerate your presence, as it jeopardizes their criminal activities.  
Remember, Serpico?  He wouldn't take the money.  The other New York police officers, 
who were all on the take, could not abide that.  
     Yes, I realize that in combat zones, it is easier to kill them and walk away.  Yes, . . .  
     Of course, you are wondering why didn't the agency that deputized the LEO as a 
federal LEO, fire and prosecute the criminal LEO.  Because law enforcement agencies 
protect their own as long as the LEO is on the agency's side; advancing the agenda of 
the agency, amassing more power to the agency, doing the agency's bidding.  Only 
those who have in some way betrayed the agency, such as whistle blowers or those 
who got greedy and are taking money from unapproved sources, are prosecuted.  
The agents may extort from the weak, but they may not take bribes from the powerful 
(Russian oligarchs for instance).  Because that threatens loyalty to the agency.  
    “Is there no virtue among us?  
If there is not, we are without hope!
No form of government, existing nor theoretical, will keep us from harm.
To think that any government, in any form, will insure liberty and happiness 
for a dishonorable population represents the height of self-deception.”  
-- James Madison, 1788
----- Instruction -----
     Colonel Robert Lindsey to his fellow trainers:  
"We are not God's gift to our students.  
Our students are God's gift to us."  
----- Instructors -----
     Be careful what you teach.  
Because your students will do in combat
whatever you have trained them to do, 
no matter how ridiculous.
-- "Shooting in Self-Defense" by Sara Ahrens
"Nine-year-old girl accidentally kills gun instructor" by CNN
     No, absolutely false.  The girl did not accidentally kill the instructor.  
The "instructor" killed himself through gross negligence.  The "instructor" is 
completely at fault.  
     If you're taking golf lessons from a pro, and you shank a golf ball into the 
parking lot and break the windshield of a car, the pro is at fault, not the student.  
     Placing the blame on the 9-year-old girl is bat shit crazy.  Which is typical 
of CNN.  
the students who require the extra effort 
are the ones who need us the most!"
-- John Farnam
     All students have notions when they come to your class.  It is up to you to 
dissuade them of the bad notions and to instill good notions.  Who knows where 
they get these notions (TV, movies, internet, friends).  It doesn't matter.  
     I had a right-handed student who wanted to carry in a purse.  I said, during our 
training, she would have to carry on the belt.  She wanted to carry at a five o'clock 
position, well behind the protrusion of her hip bone (because the holster hurt her 
hip bone, I assured her that we would find an appropriate holster that would be 
comfortable, but we would make-do for now), but not quite to the small of 
her back.  She was having difficulty presenting and holstering (past injuries, 
arthritis, etc.).  So we moved the holster to an appendix carry position at 
one o'clock.  Miracles!  Enlightenment!  Epiphany!  
     "You must teach skill sustainment as part of training."  
-- John Hearne
     If you're writing stuff for your students, please consider the following.  
Excerpt from "The Writing Thief" by Ruth Culham
ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 1625311419
ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1625311412
The Key Qualities for Each Writing Trait
     Ideas:  The piece's content 
•  Finding a topic:  The piece has a clear, central theme or a simple, original story line 
that is memorable.  If the piece has a title, that title captures that theme or story line 
in an enticing way.  
•  Focusing the topic:  The writer has narrowed a big issue or thesis to a reasonable, 
manageable topic or distilled the story to a clear, tight narrative.  
•  Developing the topic:  The writer provides enough critical evidence to support the 
issue or thesis and shows insight on the topic, or tells the story in a fresh way.  The 
ideas transcend the obvious and predictable.  
•  Using details:  The details create pictures in the reader's mind and are plentiful 
from beginning to end.  The writer's knowledge about and/or experience with the 
topic is evident through the use of accurate details, credible information, and 
believable anecdotes.  
     Organization:  The internal structure of the piece 
•  Creating the lead:  The beginning grabs the reader's attention and leads him or her 
into the piece naturally.  The beginning entices the reader to keep reading, providing 
a tantalizing glimpse of what is to come.  
•  Using sequence and transition words:  The piece contains a variety of carefully 
selected sequences and transition words, which are placed wisely to guide the 
reader through the text by showing how ideas progress, relate, and/or diverge.  
•  Developing the body:  The piece is easy to follow because the details fit together 
logically.  The writer slows down to spotlight important points or events and speeds 
up when he or she needs to keep the reader moving along.  
•  Ending with a sense of resolution:  The writer sums up his or her thinking in a 
natural, thoughtful, and convincing way and has anticipated and answered any 
lingering questions, giving the reader a strong sense of closure.  
     Voice:  The tone and tenor of the piece 
•  Establishing a tone:  The piece shows how much the writer cares about the topic.  
The piece is expressive and compelling, whereby the reader feels the writer's 
conviction, authority, and integrity.  
•  Conveying the purpose:  The reason for writing is clear.  The writer expresses his or 
her point of view  appropriately for the form (narrative, expository, persuasive, or other), 
which adds interest to the overall message.  
•  Creating a connection to the audience:  There is a strong interaction between the reader 
and the writer.  The writer has considered what the reader needs to know and the best way 
to convey it by sharing his or her feelings an opinions about the topic.  
•  Taking risks to create voice:  The writer expresses ideas in new ways, which makes 
the piece interesting, original, and fresh.  The writing sounds like the writer because 
of the particular use of words and phrases taht have a "just right" effect.  
     Word choice:  The vocabulary the writer uses to convey meaning and enlighten 
the reader 
•  Using strong verbs:  The piece contains many action words, giving it punch and 
pizzazz.  The writer has stretched to find lively verbs that add energy to the piece.  
•  Using striking words and phrases:  The piece contains many finely honed words 
and phrases that make it stand out.  The writer employs creative and effective use 
of alliteration, similes, metaphors, and/or other literary techniques.  
•  Using words that are specific and accurate:  The words are precise, often reflecting 
content- or information-based vocabulary that the reader needs to understand the 
message fully.  The writer has chosen nouns, adjectives, adverbs, and so forth 
that create clarity and bring the topic to life.  
•  Using language effectively:  The words have been selected to capture the reader's 
imagination and enhance the piece's meaning.  A deliberate attempt to choose the 
best word over the first word that comes to mind is evident.  
     Sentence fluency:  The way words and phrases flow through the piece 
•  Capturing smooth and rhythmic flow:  The writer has thought about how the 
sentences sound.  IF the piece were to be shared aloud, it would be easy on the 
ear.  The writer uses phrasing that sounds almost musical and is therefore a joy 
to read.  
•  Crafting well-build sentences:  The sentences are carefully and creatively constructed 
for maximum impact.  Transition words such as "but", "and", and "so" are used 
successfully to join sentences and sentence parts.  
•  Varying sentence patterns:  A variety of sentence types (simple, compound, and/or 
complex) enhances the central theme or story line.  The piece is made up of an effective 
mix of long, complex sentences and short, simple ones.  
•  Breaking the "rules" to create fluency:  If the piece contains fragments, they add style.  
The writer may use one word to accent a particular moment, such as , "Bam!"  If the 
writer uses a conventional tone, the sentence might begin with informal words such 
as "well", "and", or "but".  The writer breaks rules intentionally to make that dialogue 
sound authentic.  
     Conventions:  The mechanical correctness of the piece 
•  Checking spelling:  Sight words, high-frequency words, and even less familiar words 
are usually spelled correctly.  When less familiar words are spelled incorrectly, they 
are phonetically correct.  Overall, the piece shows control in spelling.  
•  Using punctuation and indenting paragraphs:  The writer handles basic punctuation 
skillfully.  He or she understands how to use punctuation to add clarity and style.  
Paragraphs are indented in the right places.  The piece is ready for a general audience.  
•  Inserting capitalization:  The use of capital letters is consistent and accurate.  
An in-depth understanding of how to capitalize dialogue, abbreviations, proper names, 
and titles is evident.  
•  Applying grammar and usage:  Words and their prefixes and suffixes have been 
combined to form grammatically correct phrases and sentences.  The writer shows 
care in using the correct grammar and usage.  The writer may break rules of 
Standard English for stylistic reasons but otherwise shows consistency and control.  
     Presentation:  The physical appearance of the piece 
•  Applying handwriting skills:  The handwriting, whether printed or cursive, is clear 
and legible.  Letters are uniform and slant evenly throughout.  The spacing between 
words is consistent.  
•  Using word processing:  The font style and size are easy to read and a good match 
for the piece's purpose.  If color is used, it enhances the piece's readability.  
•  Using white space:  Appropriately sized margins frame the text.  There are no 
cross-outs, smudges, or tears in the paper.  
•  Incorporating text features:  Text features are effectively placed on the page and 
clearly align with the text that they support.  
     I bet you're pronouncing "frisson" incorrectly.  Note the vowel pronunciations 
and the accent (on the second syllable).  I bet you're using it incorrectly.  Ya, there 
is a definition in scholarly American English dictionaries, but note the etymology.  
Ya, I know English is defined by "common usage" (a technical term), but can you 
use a word in a way that does violence to its etymology?  
     Do you understand how this applies to your teaching?  
----- Students -----
     I know training can be difficult. Let me share some words of encouragement 
that my teacher told me, that I believe apply to all training regimens.  
     "Keep in mind that this is some seriously next level material.  It is totally 
normal that the first time you see this stuff, you find it confusing.  You find it 
difficult to understand.  So, confusion should not discourage you.  It does not 
represent any intellectual failing on your part.  Rather, keep in mind that it 
represents an opportunity to get even smarter." – Tim Roughgarden, 
Professor of Computer Science and other stuff at Stanford University 
----- Andragogy -----
     ‟An instructor should not expect any learning to take 
place the first time new information is presented.”  
-- ‶Building Shooters″ by Dustin Salomon
     I had a student who started crying after firing her first shot.  I advised her to put the 
pistol down on the table and to take a few deep breaths.  I encouraged her to relax.  
     I would have been fine with stopping the lesson at that point.  But she chose to 
continue.  (I try to give the student as much control of the situation as possible.)  
     She said that the full size steel (heavy) semi-auto pistol in 45 ACP that she was 
using had too much recoil, and that she wanted to use the 38 Special 
Smith & Wesson 642 Airweight Double-Action 5-shot revolver that she had brought.  
(I was thinking, that's going to have a lot of recoil because it's a very light pistol.)  
She didn't discover that, because she was physically incapable of pressing the 
double action trigger to fire the pistol.  
     As long as it is safe, I find that it is better to let the student discover things for 
herself, rather than being told.  If you tell a student something that they don't like 
or don't agree with, it could cause resentment, which interferes with learning.  
     “The most valuable resource that all teachers have is each other.  
Without collaboration, our growth is limited to our own perspectives.”  
-- Robert John Meehan
----- Gear -----
And the safe storage thereof.  
     “Mission drives the gear train.”
-- Pat Rogers
"3 Reasons I STOPPED Recommending Sidecar Holsters" by Tessah Booth
     A couple of days ago, I was giving a lady a pistol lesson.  We were doing a standard 
equipment inspection.  We made sure the pistols were unload.  We pointed the pistols 
up.  We inserted pencils with the rubber eraser end down into our barrels.  Upon pressing 
the trigger, all of the pencils shot up.  That's good, indicating a strong firing pin strike 
and reliable primer ignition.  
     I was a  little surprised by my pistol's performance.  My SA XD usually shoots the 
pencil up to the ceiling.  So when I got home, I changed the striker spring (with a 
Wolff replacement spring) and sure enough the old spring was a quarter inch shorter 
than the new spring.  The new spring popped the pencil up to the ceiling.  Life is good.  
"A pencil is the key to holster comfort and concealment" by Tenicor
 Alien Gear
     If you're looking to build your own holster, you can buy Kydex shells and hardware 
from Alien Gear.  I do.  
     “Your car is not a holster.” 
-- Pat Rogers
     *****     *****     *****  Cryptology  *****     *****     *****
     "Arms discourage and keep the invader and plunderer in awe, 
and preserve order in the world as well as property.  
Horrid mischief would ensue were the law-abiding deprived of their use." 
-- Thomas Paine
     Cryptosystems are considered "arms" by federal law, ITAR, 
International Traffic in Arms Regulations.  That means cryptosystems are 
covered by the 2nd Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.  Never let the 
government infringe on your right to keep and bear cryptosystems, to 
include home made cryptosystems.  To include publishing cryptology 
in the open source literature.  Information wants to be free!  
"Breaking Bitlocker - Bypassing the Windows Disk Encryption"
by stacksmashing
     I can't imagine why anyone would use a proprietary system, such as Microsoft Windows.  
A given piece of software in that bloated system (40 million lines of code, decades ago 
when I studied it) will have something like 7 engineers looking at it.  While an open 
source (Linux kernel has 20,000 lines of code) piece of software will have 3000 engineers 
looking at it.  Every problem is easy to one of those 3000.  
     It's the light bulb problem.  What is the probability that the light bulb in your desk 
lamp will burn out in the next hour?  Near zero.  What's the probability that a light bulb 
in the building will burn out in the next hour?  Near 1.  
     There is no substitute for having thousands of interested engineers looking at a piece 
of code.  The self selected open source contributors are not paid.  The proprietary 
engineers (who were selected by Human Resources, not the engineering staff) are paid, 
but are not interested.  To them, it's just a 9 to 5 job.  It's the difference between guys 
fighting for their homeland and those fighting in some third world shit hole for corrupt 
politicians back home.  
     The best things in life are free:  
     Blood.  Red Cross does not pay.  They dump a very small fraction due to 
contamination due to disease.  And once detected, the person is blacklisted.  
So no longer a problem.  While the companies that pay for blood dump over 
50% due to some sort of contamination.  Probably closer to 75% based on 
other things.  
     Sex.  Free sex with a non-promiscuous person has a relatively low probability 
of STDs.  While sex with a prostitute has about a 100% probability.  
     Software.  The open source reports of vulnerabilities tell the story.  
     For quality, "free" is unbeatable.  Men will sacrifice for a cause they believe in.  
Men can't be made to give a shit about some other guy's profit.  Not now, not ever.  
That's why capitalism works.  That's why communism fails.  
     "Computer science has nothing to do with computers or science."  
-- Donald Knuth
"Is Most Published Research Wrong?" by Veritasium
     Be careful.  
     "Nothing in life is to be feared; it is only to be understood.  
Life is not easy for any of us.  But what of that?  We must have 
perseverance and above all confidence in ourselves.  We must 
believe that we are gifted for something, and that this thing 
must be attained."  
-- Marie Curie
"C++ Super Optimization: 1000X Faster" by Dave's Garage
     "Premature optimization is the root of all evil."  
-- Donald Knuth
     Do you understand when and why Dave's optimization fails?  
***** Signals Intelligence and Ground Electronic Warfare, 
Cryptologic Communications, Cyber Security, and such ***** 
"Lend Me Your Ear: Passive Remote Physical Side Channels on PCs"
Daniel Genkin, Georgia Tech; Noam Nissan, Tel Aviv University; 
Roei Schuster, Tel Aviv University and Cornell Tech; 
Eran Tromer, Tel Aviv University and Columbia University
     31st USENIX Security Symposium
     We show that built-in sensors in commodity PCs, such as microphones, 
inadvertently capture electromagnetic side-channel leakage from ongoing 
computation.  Moreover, this information is often conveyed by supposedly-benign 
channels such as audio recordings and common Voice-over-IP applications, even 
after lossy compression.  
     Thus, we show, it is possible to conduct physical side-channel attacks on 
computation by remote and purely passive analysis of commonly-shared channels.  
These attacks require neither physical proximity (which could be mitigated by 
distance and shielding), nor the ability to run code on the target or configure its 
hardware.  Consequently, we argue, physical side channels on PCs can no longer 
be excluded from remote-attack threat models.  
     We analyze the computation-dependent leakage captured by internal 
microphones, and empirically demonstrate its efficacy for attacks.  In one scenario, 
an attacker steals the secret ECDSA signing keys of the counterparty in a voice call.  
In another, the attacker detects what web page their counterparty is loading.  In the 
third scenario, a player in the Counter-Strike online multiplayer game can detect a 
hidden opponent waiting in ambush, by analyzing how the 3D rendering done by 
the opponent's computer induces faint but detectable signals into the opponent's 
audio feed.  
"NSA Buying Bulk Surveillance Data on Americans without a Warrant"
by Bruce Schneier
"Facebook’s Extensive Surveillance Network" by Bruce Schneier
Consumer Reports
"Improving the Cryptanalysis of Lattice-Based Public-Key Algorithms" by Bruce Schneier
     Magazine article for the layman - 
"Celebrated Cryptography Algorithm Gets an Upgrade" by Madison Goldberg
     Primary source - 
"Fast Practical Lattice Reduction Through Iterated Compression" 
by Keegan Ryan & Nadia Heninger 
     [My local branch of the Nashville Public Library can get me such articles, 
so I don't have to drive to Middle Tennessee State University in Murfreesboro, TN  
anymore. -- Jon Low]  
     ‟If violent crime is to be curbed, it is only the intended victim who can do it.  
The felon does not fear the police, and he fears neither judge nor jury.  
Therefore what he must fear is his victim.”  
-- Col. Jeff Cooper, "Principles of Personal Defense" 
     *****     *****     *****  Intelligence  *****     *****     *****
     "A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, 
the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed."  
-- Second Amendment, U.S. Constitution 
     The art and practice of Intelligence is an arm protected by the 2nd Amendment 
to the U.S. Constitution.  Never let anyone infringe upon your God given right 
to keep and bear intelligence.  (The enemy will try to dumb you down.  Resist!)  
     The right to keep and bear arms is Biblical.  
     “Then Jesus said to His disciples, whoever does not have a sword should sell 
his coat and buy a sword.”  
– Book of Luke 22:36, New Life Version of the Bible
"Helicopter With 5 U.S. Marines Found After Going Missing; 
Search For Crew Ongoing" by Ryan Saavedra
     “The U.S. Marine Corps is searching for five U.S. Marines assigned to 
Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 361 
Marine Aircraft Group 16, 
3rd Marine Aircraft Wing,” the 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing said in a statement. 
“The Marines were flying a CH-53E Super Stallion helicopter during a routine 
training flight from Creech Air Force Base to Marine Corps Air Station Miramar 
on Feb. 6. 2024, when the aircraft was reported overdue.”
     The Marines said that the helicopter was found Wednesday morning by 
civil authorities in Pine Valley, California.  
     “The 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing is managing search and rescue efforts through 
the Wing Operations Command Center and using ground and aviation assets to 
locate the aircrew in coordination with the San Diego County Sheriff’s Department 
and multiple federal, state and local agencies,” the statement added.  
     Cited statement, 
"Good habits and skill beat luck every time."
-- Sheriff Jim Wilson
"[1289] This Lock Is Indisputably “Pickproof” " by LockPickingLawyer
     Notice the comments in passing.  Information leaks.  It's your job to notice.  
"Why were U.S. special forces told not to help in Benghazi?"
by Tim Griffin Attorney General of Arkansas
     Your job is to take the few pieces of the puzzle that you have, and to construct the 
picture.  You will never have all of the pieces.  Many of the pieces will be false.  
But you can still see the picture.  
     Another example.  
"Why Science Fraud Goes Deeper Than the Stanford Scandal..." by SocialNeuro
“If you are reading this and can’t put your hand on your defensive firearm, 
all of your training is wasted.” -- Col. Jeff Cooper
     *****     *****     *****  After Thoughts   *****     *****     *****
     Rest in Peace, Toby Keith.  
     Rest in Peace, David Kahn.  
"A Psychological Breakdown of a Rap Song" by Jordan B Peterson
     There are two sexes:  male and female.  There are three genders:  masculine, feminine, 
and neuter.  Confusing the two is submitting to the liberal's misuse of language.  
"Actor Idris Elba Proves Why We Can't Compromise 
A Single Inch On The Second Amendment"
by Colion Noir
     Want to prevent men from harassing women in the workplace?  
Ban all women from the workplace.  That's how gun control works.  
"At Real Clear Policy: The Truth About Mass Shootings" by John Lott
     "Conflating Uvalde with armed robberies or fights over drug turf doesn’t make sense, 
but it does create inflated numbers that can be used to scare and mislead people.  
Mass public shootings are very rare, and it’s much rarer still for them to be committed 
by rifle-toting white supremacists."  
"Ann Coulter interviews John Lott about the Mass Public Shootings"
     Gary, Indiana
Do you understand why?  
"U.S. Supreme Court Issues 9-0 Ruling" by Facts Matter with Roman Balmakov
     You can sue any governmental body for reporting false stuff on your credit report.  
No sovereign immunity.  
     You can sue any person for reporting false stuff on your credit report.  
    “You can’t truly call yourself ‘peaceful’
unless you are capable of great violence.  
If you’re not capable of violence, you’re not peaceful, 
you’re harmless.  Important distinction.”  
-- Stef Starkgaryen 
Semper Fidelis,
Jonathan D. Low
Radio:  KI4SDN

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